Defatted Meal is a sustainable protein source and economical cattle rations feed. It is a protein product derived from organic sources and typically used as an affordable alternative to other protein meals. Defatted Meal has a protein content of 31% on average and is usually incorporated at less than 25% of ration.
The outer shell of almonds are hammer milled to produce a product with high levels of non-effective fiber, low crude protein of 5% and medium levels of ME (10.5 MJ/kg DM). Unlike Macadamia Meal, Milled Almond Hulls have low oil content of 2%. It is a cost-effective fiber source to include in total mixed rations.
Fruit By-Products like citrus pulp are useful feeds although low in protein at 6 to 7% CP and high in moisture at 80%. Benefits include a high energy value of 12 to 13% MJ/kg DM. Fed at up to 12 kg fresh weight per cow per day, they are very beneficial to rumen function and intake in high-grain, low-roughage diets.
Commonly known as “white” or “fuzzy” cotton, White Cotton Seed offers a high level of energy derived from a fat rather than starch source (14 MJ/kg DM) and protein (22% CP). It is a good source of several nutrients, but it also has certain properties that restrict its use in beef cattle diets to 3 kg per cow per day.
Molasses is an excellent mineral source and offers quick energy. However, molasses needs to be supplemented with protein and phosphorus in low-quality roughage diets due to the energy content of 10 to 12 MJ/kg DM, virtually nil protein, reasonable calcium and low phosphorus. It is sticky, heavy and difficult to handle.
Brewer’s Grain is an energy and protein supplement that is a competent solution in high grain-low roughage diets. It offers high protein of 20 to 25% content, high moisture content of 75% and reasonable fiber content of 17%. Protein- and fiber-rich Brewer’s Grain is excellent feed for everything from cows to chickens.
Macadamia Meal provides an additional source of energy when fed to beef cattle. It is a by-product of macadamia shell and nut waste, offering high oil content of 15 to 20%. Since high levels of fats and oils in the ration may reduce digestion, intake of roughages and production levels, restricted quantities work best.
Astaxanthin is a dynamic antioxidant, carotenoid and pigmentation source using natural astaxantin. This feed additive’s hybrid algal technology dramatically increases overall health and provides better color and nutrients for fish and eggs. Currently registered in the aquatic industry with poultry and swine pending.
Vegetable By-Products are nutrient rich although not economically attractive unless obtained and transported at a low cost. These products also need to be introduced gradually, plus special care is required to prevent overfeeding and digestive disorders like scouring. Choking can also be a problem with some vegetables.
Sunflower Meal is derived from crushing and extracting oil from sunflower seeds. Used as an animal food product, it has the greatest potential use in ruminant rations but can also be used as a protein supplement in non-ruminant rations. The protein content typically ranges from 28 to 34%, depending on seed quality.